Populism Là Gì

Populism is on the rise - especially among Europe's right, và in the US, where it helped crown Mr Trump.Quý khách hàng sẽ xem: Populism là gì

Italy's popudanh mục Five sầu Star Movement & anti-immigrant League parties have sầu emerged as two major players in the lathử nghiệm elections - the most recent of several such results in Europe.

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In political science, populism is the idea that society is separated into lớn two groups at odds with one another - "the pure people" and "the corrupt elite", according khổng lồ Cas Mudde, author of Populism: A Very Short Introduction.

The term is often used as a kind of shorth& political insult. Britain's Labour leader, Jeremy Corbyn, has been accused of populism over his party's biểu ngữ "for the many, not the few" - but that's not quite the same thing.

The word "is generally misused, especially in a European context," according to Benjamin Moffitt, author of The Global Rise of Populism.

The true popudanh sách leader claims to lớn represent the unified "will of the people". He stands in opposition khổng lồ an enemy, often embodied by the current system - aiming khổng lồ "drain the swamp" or tackle the "liberal elite".

"It generally attaches itself lớn the right in a European context… but that's not an iron rule," Dr Moffitt said.

Popudanh mục parties can be anywhere on the political spectrum. In Latin America, there was Venezuela's late President Chávez. In Spain, there is the Podemos party, và in Greece the label has also been applied lớn Syriza. All these are on the left.

But "most successful populists today are on the right, particularly the radical right," Prof Mudde said.

Politicians "lượt thích Marine Le Pen in France, Viktor Orbán in Hungary, và Donald Trump in the US, combine populism with nativism and authoritarianism," he added.


image captionIn Italy, supporters of the popudanh sách Five Star movement brandish letters spelling out their government ambitions

Commentators - from Time magazine khổng lồ the President of the European Commission - have been warning about the rise of right-wing populism for years.

"Political scientists have sầu been catching on to lớn this for the last 25-30 years," Dr Moffitt says - but admits "there's been an acceleration."

Experts point to both societal changes like multiculturalism and globalism, and more concrete crises as behind the rise of popumenu parties in Europe.

The swell in support seemed khổng lồ happen "from 2008 - and particularly in 2011, when the banking crisis turned inlớn a sovereign debt crisis", he said.

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It was a rare occasion when an elite class - the wealthy bankers - could be identified as more or less directly responsible for a crisis which affected the majority of society.

In his book The Global Rise of Populism, Dr Moffitt argues that there are other traits associated with the typical populist leader.

One is "bad manners", or behaving in a way that's not typical of politicians - a tactic employed by President Trump & the Philippines' President Duterte.

The other, he says, is "perpetuating a state of crisis" - và always seeming to be on the offensive sầu.

"A populist leader who gets inlớn power is 'forced' to be in a permanent campaign to lớn convince his people that he is not establishment - & never will be," according to lớn Prof Nadia Urbinati from Columbia University.

She argues that popucác mục content is "made of negatives" - whether it is anti-politics, anti-intellectualism, or anti-elite. Here lies one of the populism's strengths - it is versatile.

Another comtháng thread ahy vọng popumenu leaders is they tover to dislượt thích the "complicated democratic systems" of modern government - preferring direct democracy lượt thích referendums instead, according khổng lồ Prof Bull.

That also ties in to its links lớn authoritarianism, he argues - a laông xã of trust in the established system gives rise lớn "strongman" leaders.

"Ultimately, the leader makes the decision in a way that just isn't possible in traditional democracies," he says.

That sentiment is perhaps best embodied by the late left-wing Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, who once said: "I am not an individual - I am the people".


Such thinking "can lead lớn people thinking they're infallible," Dr Moffitt said. "It restructures the political space in a new and scary way".

"In order lớn garner tư vấn, they're quicker than the establishment các buổi tiệc nhỏ to make offers, or to lớn promise khổng lồ change things… that on closer inspection may not turn out to be feasible," he said.